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The Russian Foreign Ministry summoned the Israeli ambassador to demand an explanation for Israel's airstrikes near Palmyra in Syria last week, Moscow has confirmed.

Russia's foreign ministry on Friday summoned Israel's ambassador to explain the activity - the first time Israel has been asked to do so since Russian Federation entered the Syrian war two years ago.

Syria's military launched anti-aircraft missiles at the attackers and said it had downed an Israeli plane and hit another as they carried out pre-dawn strikes near the desert city of Palmyra. "There will be no compromise on this issue", the defense minister stressed.

Israel used Iron Dome extensively to intercept rockets fired by Palestinian militants in the 2014 Gaza war, and the Arrow missiles were developed with an Iranian missile threat in mind.

Israeli Prime Minster Benjamin Netanyahu, meanwhile, vowed to continue to carry out attacks in Syria against weapons shipments that it believes to be bound for Hezbollah.

Commenting again on last week's events, the Israeli military's chief of staff, Gen Gadi Eisenkot, referred to the airstrike on Sunday.

No Israelis were hurt during the strikes Thursday night or from the anti-aircraft fire, according to a statement by the IDF spokesman. Israel said it shot down one of the interceptors with its Arrow long-range SAMs.

"Hezbollah has been violating United Nations resolutions and is gearing for war", he said.

Israel says forces loyal to Syrian dictator Assad (pictured) fired missiles at some of their jets during the raids.

Israel and Syria are still technically at war, though the border had remained largely quiet for decades until 2011 when the Syrian conflict began.

Israel had anticipated a conflict that would undermine the Assad regime, seriously wound Hezbollah and push back Iran's attempts to expand its influence.