During the second and final day of meetings with the Chinese leader, Trump's tone had appeared to soften, and Chinese state news agency Xinhua reported that Trump had accepted Xi's invitation to visit China.
The comments come as the two leaders wrapped up a Florida summit, and signal a U-turn from his anti-China rhetoric on the campaign trail previous year.
The two leaders also agreed on the "urgency of the threat of North Korea's nuclear weapons program" and agreed to work together to resolve the issue "peacefully", Tillerson said. Trump strongly criticized China's trade policies and trade surplus over the United States throughout the presidential campaign and into the early days of his presidency, going so far as to sign an executive order to investigate the trade deficit with China last month.
Without citing specifics, Trump on April 7 said that "we have made tremendous progress..."
The two sides should promote the "healthy development of bilateral trade and investment" and advance talks on a bilateral investment agreement, Xi said, according to a statement on China's Foreign Ministry website.
Trump said in a brief appearance before reporters Friday that he and Xi made "tremendous progress" in their talks and that he believes "lots of very potentially bad problems will be going away".
Thursday night's strikes - some 60 cruise missiles fired from two ships in the Mediterranean - were the culmination of a rapid, three-day transformation for Trump, who has long opposed deeper USA involvement in Syria's civil war.
Xi said that the meeting helped the two leaders develop a "deeper understanding" and build trust between the two nations. He noted the historic responsibility of both countries - the world's largest economies and emerging military rivals - to work toward peace and stability.
Standing firm, the Trump administration signaled new sanctions would soon follow the missile attack, and the Pentagon was even probing whether Russian Federation itself was involved in the chemical weapons assault that compelled President Donald Trump to action.
Two U.S. warships - the USS Ross and the USS Porter - fired 59 cruise missiles from the eastern Mediterranean Sea at the targeted air base.
Tillerson also says Trump and Xi did establish a new high-level framework for future negotiations.
The White House said Trump also stressed to Xi the importance of creating "reciprocal market access" that did not disadvantage American workers.
Behind closed doors, the top item on Trump's agenda is North Korea.
According to one US official, initial assessments indicate that up to 20 Syrian aircraft were destroyed after the USA hit Syria's al Shayrat airbase with more than 50 Tomahawk cruise missiles Thursday. "He doesn't want Assad to think US military power will be used only once".
Trump has long said North Korea is China's problem to fix, criticizing Beijing for refusing to use its influence over Pyongyang.
While Trump would not say what he wants China to do specifically, he said he thinks China will "want to be stepping up" in trying to deter North Korea's nuclear ambitions. Beijing is building and fortifying islands in pursuit of expansive territorial claims in the strategic waterway.