Thirteen voted against the motion.
With just 13 votes against, this easily exceeded the two-thirds threshold needed for the government to be able to overrule legislation that had required elections to be held at regular five-year intervals, beginning in 2015.
May, 60, had stunned her allies as well as opponents when she called for a snap poll yesterday.
Opinion polls suggest Labour will lose heavily in the snap election on June the 8th.But Corbyn called on voters to surprise the world once again.
This story was first published on CNN.com, "General election: UK Parliament approves Theresa May's snap vote". We need strong and stable leadership that can only be provided by Theresa May and the Conservative Party.
The Sun, Britain's top-selling newspaper, splashed the headline "Blue Murder" - a reference to the Conservatives' colour branding and the prospect of Labour losing dozens of seats.
Jeremy Corbyn has promised to put wealth "in the hands of the people of Britain" as he turned his fire on big business and the rich in his first major speech of the general election campaign.
As the debate began, former chancellor George Osborne - who has recently been appointed editor of the London Evening Standard - announced he would not be standing for election on June 8. "I am stepping down from the House of Commons - for now", he wrote in a letter to his constituents.
"I will be debating these issues publicly across the country", she told parliament.
THERESA May has called a General Election in the interests to the Tory Party not the country, Nicola Sturgeon has said. The British people have to navigate a way through not just choosing a government but working out what they want the governing mandate to be.
Brexit will dominate the campaign, with May - who took office after David Cameron resigned following the European Union vote - seeking public backing for her plan to pull Britain out of Europe's single market. That is in our long- term interest.
But Labour MP Gisela Stuart, one of the architects of Brexit as co-chair of Vote Leave, said she would be standing down after 20 years as MP for Birmingham Edgbaston.
"It comes to a point where people have a choice to make and so do they want to back what the Tories offer or do they want to support their local communities and make sure we all do well and prosper together".
Speaking during a visit to Staffordshire, shadow education secretary Ms Rayner told the Express & Star that the "hard work" of Labour activists would shine through whether people "like Jeremy Corbyn or not". May reiterated her reasons for holding an election, insisting that political divisions in Westminster risked weakening Britain's hand in the negotiations with Europe.
She has categorically denied the June 8 poll will be a sort of re-run of last year's referendum, saying there could be no "turning back" on the Brexit decision but if she was re-elected, it would be a vote of confidence in her government's central goals of gaining "control" of the UK's laws, borders and money.
After the speech, a spokeswoman for the leader said Labour's position, backing a "meaningful vote" in Parliament, had not changed but did not explicitly rule out a second referendum.