Stoneman who has smashed three centuries and averaged 59 in first-class cricket since moving from Durham to Surrey this season, has been called in place of Keaton Jennings who endured a tough time against South Africa in the four-match series.
Crane's call-up for Edgbaston was largely unexpected after an indifferent season with Hampshire although the 20-year-old made a positive impression in England's Twenty20 series against South Africa in June.
Surrey batsman Stoneman is set to make his debut at Edgbaston and the 30-year-old will become former captain Alastair Cook's 12th opening partner since the retirement of Andrew Strauss in 2012.
Jennings was dropped from the England squad to face the West Indies in a day/night Test at Edgbaston later this month. "It's been a long road, a few ups and downs, but to get that call was quite the release of emotion".
"I've had 10 years as a professional so you'd hope I'd have worked things out by now".
The Johannesburg-born batsman managed to contribute just 127 runs in eight innings during the recent series, allowing Stoneman to be handed his chance.
"There are new challenges ahead and it's a step into the unknown, but the experience I've had on various surfaces against the best Division One bowlers and some overseas players will stand me in good stead".
"Selectors would like to offer their congratulations to Mark Stoneman and Mason Crane who thoroughly deserve their opportunity in the squad".
I don't envy him starting with a day-night Test - West Indies, I think, will be less powerful then South Africa, but the ball will nip around under the lights.
Crane's inclusion also means no return for Yorkshire leg-spinner Adil Rashid, 29, who last played Test cricket against India in December.
Chris Woakes is also included, having overcome a side strain, and will put pressure on Toby Roland-Jones for a seam spot as England begin a three-Test series against Jason Holder's Windies.
"Go get a volume of runs, go back to the County Championship and show everyone what a great player he is".
Alastair Cook (Essex), Mark Stoneman (Surrey), Tom Westley (Essex), Joe Root (Yorkshire, capt), Dawid Malan (Middlesex), Ben Stokes (Durham), Jonathan Bairstow (Yorkshire, wk), Moeen Ali (Worcestershire), Chris Woakes (Warwickshire), Toby Roland-Jones (Middlesex), Stuart Broad (Nottinghamshire), Mason Crane (Hampshire), James Anderson (Lancashire).