North Korea has dominated Mr Trump's Asia trip so far to Japan, South Korea, China and Vietnam.
But Xi said only that dialogue was crucial to resolve the problem.
In an address to a business forum after the talks, Trump said the United States was committed to denuclearisation of the Korean peninsula, but China had to work harder on the issue.
During his trip to Asia, Trump attempted a symbolic stare-down of Kim this week at the heavily fortified border that separates North and South Korea. "Time is quickly running out, we must act fast, and hopefully China will act faster".
Wu Xinbo, director of Fudan University's Centre for American Studies, said China might have signalled that Beijing could take tougher measures against Pyongyang, including cuts to oil supplies.
In a stern warning to Pyongyang, Mr Trump said: "Do not underestimate us, do not try us".
Mr Trump offered North Koreans a "path towards a much better future", having urged the regime to "come to the table" and "make a deal" over its nuclear programme.
"This is a very different administration than the United States has had in the past".
According to Bloomberg, the secretary said he didn't want to overinterpret the gap of almost two months since North Korea's last missile launch.
"What happened was that there were working-level discussions between the two countries that we're going to carry them (contracts) out", he said. "It doesn't even have a chance", Trump said.
"Trump has shown that the USA is willing to consider China's position that there should be no war on the Korean peninsula", he said.
Tensions over North Korea's weapons programme have surged in recent months, as Pyongyang carried out a sixth nuclear test - by far its largest to date - and test fired dozens of missiles, some capable of reaching the U.S. mainland.
North Korea fears the USA wants it to be merged with South Korea.