Until the most recent military intervention by Turkey, Afrin had been relatively calm during the Syrian civil war, as local government and militias started their own political project and defense strategies against other insurgent and Islamist groups, becoming a safe spot for Syrians fleeing from other regions.
Over the last 48 hours, Afrin city has reportedly been targeted by Turkish air strikes, the water has been cut off, and the internet severed.
"Hey NATO where are you? Where are you?", RT quoted Erdogan as saying on Sunday.
Erdogan questioned why North Atlantic Treaty Organisation had not come to Turkey's aid in its Syria operation when Ankara had backed critical alliance campaigns worldwide. "We are constantly harassed by terror groups on our borders. As SYPG and JAS, we will launch a new group of human shields against the invasion of the Cizirê region and the Firat (Euphrates) region".
Turkey views the YPG as an extension of the Kurdistan Workers' Party (PKK), which is deemed a terrorist group by the United States, the European Union and Turkey.
However, it remains to be seen if the US allows Turkey to continue with its offensive or intervenes to protect the force that is vital to maintaining control of huge swathes of ungoverned Syria.
"Turkey's goal is not capture of the territories of the other states, but only elimination of the terrorism threat in the region".
The calls have been dismissed by Turkish officials, who insist they are fighting against "terrorists", while Afrin was not explicitly mentioned in the resolution. In January, U.S. had announced plans to help the Kurdish militia form a 30,000-strong "border security force" which was received in Ankara with alarm and anger.
Ayn al-Arab, better known by its Kurdish name Kobane, has huge symbolic importance as it was the epicentre of a struggle with Islamic State (IS) jihadists which was eventually won by the Kurds.