Spain was so dominant in the first half that it almost made it to halftime with a one-goal lead despite taking no shots: its opening goal came off the right ankle of Ignashevich, who unwittingly scored the World Cup's 10th own goal - a record that continues to grow - as he fell to the ground while tangling with Sergio Ramos on a free kick in the 12th minute.
Russian Federation introduced Aleksandr Yerokhin for Daler Kuzyayev - the first time ever that a fourth substitute had been used at the World Cup - and Asensio fired straight at Akinfeev from the edge of the area before coming off for Rodrigo as Spain also used their fourth sub.
Spain dominated possession but rarely found a way through the home side's rugged rearguard and when they did they ran into an inspired Igor Akinfeev.
Spain drop veteran midfielder Andres Iniesta for their World Cup last-16 clash with hosts Russian Federation. Russia's chances to win the World Cup are now +7000, while the Sbornaya is +800 to reach the semi-finals.
Koke's penalty was saved by Akinfeev and Golovin stepped up to smash home and give the hosts the advantage, but Ramos kept Spain in it before Cheryshev put the hosts on the brink of victory - and then Akinfeev saved Aspas' effort with his foot to send them through. "We might have attacked more if we only played four at the back or with more forwards but I believe we were victorious because my players stuck to the plan". A fortnight short of his 39th birthday, the CSKA stopper is old enough to know you need to watch the ball. "We had great hopes for this World Cup and it was not to be. We will do our utmost, please, support us, and we will delight you with the game".
Koke, Nacho and Marco Asensio have been drafted in to replace the trio. Sadly, he had eyes only for Sergio Ramos, who he successfully wrestled to the floor only for the ball to cannon off his heel for a comical own goal. It was delivered to Artem Dzyuba, who met it firmly with his head only for Gerard Pique to bat it down, volleyball style.
Spain finished the half with a burst of activity, registering a couple of efforts, but the next 40 minutes were turgid, a state of affairs not helped by the 25-degree temperature.
Early flickers from Spain came through Isco's measured passing, but when their opening goal arrived after 11 minutes it came from a set piece.
Dzyuba then smashed the ball home for the game's first shot on target and his third goal of the tournament.
Previous defeats by Spain, and the fact his side had played with 10 for much of their last game against Uruguay, convinced boss Cherchesov to pick a 5-3-1-1 formation in the hope that discretion really is the better part of valour. The 34-year-old Barcelona midfielder came off the bench and nearly won the game with an 85th-minute shot well saved by Akinfeev.
Iniesta stepped up first and scored, Smolov replied but David De Gea got a fingertip to it. Pique scored his and Ignashevich, who was superb after his own goal, coolly replied.
Asked why he did not appear to be as happy as his players, the 54-year-old said: "My emotions are simple - you show them when you direct your team but when it's over I'm already thinking about the next game".
"Only together will we be able to achieve a success as together we are strength", Gazinsky said.
Akinfeev dived to save a Rodrigo shot in the one added minute at the end of extra time to huge cheers from the crowd as the game went to penalties.